M.Tech Biomedical Engineering – Introduction
M.Tech Biomedical Engineering: Biomedical Engineering is an interdisciplinary domain that merges the primary principles of medicine with that of engineering and design. The discipline uses research and development in order to develop innovative solutions in the world of medicine. From pacemakers to stem cell engineering, the greatest technological and biological leaps in the past few decades were invented through the work that took place within this area of study. Biomedical engineering involves application of engineering principles to medicine, the human body and the way that biology works to create life and to analyse and solve problems related to biology and medicine, which results in overall improvement of health care. In consultation with doctors, they design medical devices, and tools to assist surgeons in performing surgery, etc.
Biomedical Engineering is one of the most recent, emerging and significant fields of healthcare and engineering. M.Tech Biomedical Engineering is all about applying the knowledge and approaches of all major fields of sciences and engineering to provide medical and clinical knowledge and expertise with the accurate tools studies and treatment. Anyone after M.Tech Biomedical Engineering can opt for a career as a hospital engineer, research scientist in research organisations or as an engineer in industries dealing with biomedical devices.
M.Tech Biomedical Engineering is a highly interdisciplinary and related field of engineering and sciences. It is because of its ability to branch out into so many different careers, to sustain itself as an industry d a profession in the years to come. It has a great deal of potential to answer many crucial questions that we are yet to find answers. It is an efficient merger of biology and technology. Biomedical Engineering derives its principles and knowledge from all ‘the major branches of engineering such as electron-computers, ceramics and chemical, and science such as chemistry, physics. nuclear physics, biology. pharmacology, physiology and biotechnology. Whenever some new technology is developed, its application in biomedical engineering is always searched. For example, the development of optical fibres in the late 1980s has led to the development of the endoscope, which is indeed a useful device for applications. Biomedical Engineering is one of the youngest disciplines in engineering and has made tremendous progress in the last 4 decades. This has been aided by rapid advancements in Semiconductor Technology, Information Technology, and Biotechnology. In the field of Biomedical Engineering, researchers with expertise in diverse areas work towards the unified goal of creating products and techniques for better health care.
Further, most of the high-end imaging systems such as the CT scan and MRI imaging have been possible only because of tremendous advancement in computer technology, both at the hardware and software end. Finally, we can say that it is only because of technological advancement that we have been successfully able to design and develop accurate diagnostic devices (ultrasound scan, CT scan, ECG, EMG and EEG machines and others), prosthetic devices (pacemaker, heart valves, artificial limbs), treatment and surgery devices (LASER- based surgery systems. electrosurgical units, radiotherapy systems. lithotripters and more).
Thus. advancement in the field of science and technology from all fronts has contributed a lot to the development of biomedical engineering. Further, from a biomedical engineering point of view, some of the key areas that are lucrative as a career in the field, after M.Tech Biomedical Engineering are as follows:
- Biomedical instrumentation, biosensors and Bio-MEMs. micro nano-biomedical devices and systems
- Nuclear medicine. biomaterials and implant technology
- Biomechanics. rehabilitation engineering, orthopaedics and prosthetics
- Telemedicine and healthcare
- Medical robotics.
- Computer-integrated and computer assisted surgery. medical robotics
- Computational bioengineering, neural systems engineering
Biomedical Engineering is fast and is a field in high demand as a career both the national and international level. In most of the universities in India, the curriculum has been designed to provide all students with a general background in Biomedical Engineering followed by more specific knowledge in the area of their choice. The former is achieved through core (for everyone) and compulsory (for students with a particular background) courses in the first semester. Electives taken during the second and third semester provide specialised knowledge in the area of the individual interest. In the first semester, students with backgrounds in life sciences and medicine are required to take compulsory courses in mathematics, electronic circuits and instrumentation. Students with backgrounds in physical sciences and engineering take courses in physiology. There are other elective courses to be taken as well. In the second semester, all students have to go through a core course on Biostatistics.along with a seminar on a topic related to Biomedical Engineering. The rest of the courses are electives, which the students choose after consultation with the faculty adviser. Electives are offered in bio-potentials, bio-electricity, ergonomics, medical sensors, biosensors, bioMEMS, medical imaging physics, biomaterials, drug delivery, cellular & tissue engineering, micro-fluids, computational modelling, biomechanics, etc. All students are required to take a course designated as an Institute Elective offered by departments.
Research after M.Tech Biomedical Engineering
Fundamental and applied research is being conducted in the following broad areas, which the students can choose to do projects in:
- Biomedical transducers and sensors including biosensors and bioMEMS devices
- Biomaterials and tissue engineering
- Biophysics, cellular mechanics and computational biology
- Controlled drug delivery systems
- Computational neurophysiology
- Micro-fabrication and micro-fluidics
- Telemedicine and knowledge based systems
- Bio-photonics, Tomography, Inverse Problems
- Movement neurophysiology, neural plasticity, noninvasive brain stimulation, rehabilitation technology
Career after M.Tech Biomedical Engineering
Bioinstrumentation: It is the application of electronics and measurement techniques to develop devices used for the purpose of diagnosis and treatment of diseases. As a Biomedical Engineer, your responsibility will be to make newer and better instruments that can look through the body such as X-rays, MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) etc. Your work will also involve developing cameras and other devices that will help surgeons get a better look of the inner body during operations.
Biomaterials: It includes both living tissues and artificial materials used to replace diseased organs. You will find out which living and non-living materials are compatible and make devices that mimic the operations of the organs of the body like an artificial heart. You will also be involved in ‘growing’ organs from tissues and cells in the laboratory.
Biomechanics: This is the area where you will apply mechanics to biological or medical problems. You will study the flow of bodily fluids such as blood. This will help you in deciding the specifications for the various devices such as artificial joint replacements, pacemakers etc.
Cellular and Genetic Engineering: Here you will look at medical problemS at the microscopic level. As a Biomedical Engineer you will develop miniature devices to deliver medicines to precise locations to promote healing or inhibit diseases.
Tissue Engineering: As a Biomedical Engineer you will apply the principles of Biology and engineering to develop tissue substitutes to restore, maintain, or improve the function of diseased or damaged human tissues. For example you will use cells from an individual’s healthy kidney and put it in the diseased kidney thus causing the growth of new, healthy tissue.
Clinical Engineering: In this field, as a Biomedical Engineer you will be responsible for developing and maintaining computer databases of medical instruments and equipment records in hospitals. As a Biomedical Engineer you will also be involved in the testing, purchase and use of sophisticated medical instruments.
Orthopedic Bioengineering: Here you will use engineering for the understanding of the function of bones, joints and muscles, and for the design of artificial joint replacements. Orthopedic bioengineers analyze the friction, lubrication and wear and tear of natural joints to develop artificial limbs just as good as the real thing.
Bone Implant Technologies: As a Biomedical Engineer you will research new technologies and materials that will make bone, joint, and tooth implants almost as good as nature’s own versions.
Robot Technologies: As a Biomedical Engineer you will develop and look after fully programmed robots that will be used in operating rooms for reaching vital organs that may be damaged permanently due to human error.
Navigation Systems: As a Biomedical Engineer you will use software tools and specialised imaging equipment to create a digital picture of the inside of a patient’s body. This will help surgeons determine the best possible way to go about the operation,
Specialized Laser Technology: As a Biomedical Engineer you will develop new laser technologies for applications in routine and specialised operations, dental surgery as well as in skin related disorders.
Rehabilitation Engineering: Rehabilitation engineers enhance the capabilities and improve the quality of life for individuals with physical impairments. You will be involved in the development of home, workplace and transportation modifications like motorised wheelchairs that enhance seating, positioning and mobility for those with physical disabilities.